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What is transplantation?
How are organs chosen for transplantation?
What is organ rejection?
What drugs are currently used in organ transplantation?
What is the success rate of organ transplantation and what are its complications?
What is graft tolerance?
How can microarray be applied to organ transplantation?

 
WHAT IS TRANSPLANTATION?
Transplantation - the grafting of organs or tissues from one individual to another
 
HOW ARE ORGANS CHOSEN FOR TRANSPLANTATION?
  Blood type matching, tissue type matching (HLA, human leukocyte antigen matching) and crossmatching are the most important aspects of donor and recipient matching. They apply to both living kidney donation and cadaveric kidney donations.

 
WHAT IS ORGAN REJECTION?
  Transplant rejection - an immune reaction that is directed towards transplanted tissue and leads to the death of the graft

 
WHAT DRUGS ARE CURRENTLY USED IN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION?
  Many recipients become fully rehabilitated from their original disease following transplantation with the help of immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin or FK506.

 
WHAT IS THE SUCCESS RATE OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION AND WHAT ARE ITS COMPLICATIONS?
  Transplanted organs eventually lose function due to progressive injury largely due to recurrence of the original disease, drug toxicity or to causes which have been collectively referred to as chronic rejection. Equally disconcerting is the fact that transplantation patients must be maintained on immunosuppressive drugs that not only have toxic side effects on transplanted organs but as well cause an increased risk for infections and cancer.

 
WHAT IS GRAFT TOLERANCE?
  Graft tolerance – when the immune system of a person does not or cannot respond to transplanted tissue. In such cases of graft acceptance the individual is said to be tolerant of the graft.

 
HOW CAN MICROARRAY BE APPLIED TO ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION?
  A comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray analysis associated with transplantation injury, drug effects, and states of long-term graft survival in the absence of injury will provide new discoveries and tools for treatment and assessment of transplantation patients. The contribution of traditional as well as novel transplant associated factors of both alloantigen independent and alloantigen dependent specific injury mechanisms remains to be identified.

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